The Restatement of the Law Fourth, Property seeks to bring comprehensiveness and coherence to American property law. Subjects to be covered include: the classification of entitlements, possession, accession, and acquisition; ownership powers; protection of and limits on ownership; divided and shared ownership; title and transfer; easements, servitudes, and land use; and public rights and takings.

Volume 1: The Basics of Property

Division One: Definitions

Chapter 1.       Meanings of “Property”

Chapter 2.       Property as a Relation

Chapter 3.       Separation into Things

Chapter 4.       Things versus Legal Things

Chapter 5.       Tangible and Intangible Things

Chapter 6.       Contracts as Property

Chapter 7.       Property in Information

Chapter 8.       Entitlement and Interest

Chapter 9.       In Rem Rights

Chapter 10.     Residual Claims

Chapter 11.     Customary Rights

Chapter 12.     Quasi-Property

Division Two: Accession

Chapter 13.     Scope of Legal Thing

Chapter 14.     Ad Coelum

Chapter 15.     Airspace

Chapter 16.     Minerals

Chapter 17.     Caves

Chapter 18.     Accretion, etc.

Chapter 19.     Fruits, etc.

Chapter 20.     Fixtures

Chapter 21.     Increase

Chapter 22.     Confusion

Chapter 23.     Improvements

Division Three: Possession

Chapter 24.     De Facto Possession

Chapter 25.     Customary Legal Possession

Chapter 26.     Basic Legal Possession

Chapter 27.     Rights to Possess

Chapter 28.     Ownership versus Possession

Chapter 29.     Transitivity of Rights to Possess

Chapter 30.     Sequential Possession, Finders

Chapter 31.     Adverse Possession

Chapter 32.     Adverse Possession and Prescription

Chapter 33.     Interests Not Subject to Adverse Possession

Chapter 34.     State of Mind in Adverse Possession

Chapter 35.     Tacking in Adverse Possession

Division Four: Acquisition

Chapter 36.     Acquisition by Possession

Chapter 37.     Acquisition by Accession

Chapter 38.     Specification

Chapter 39.     Creation

Volume 2: Interferences with, and Limits on, Ownership and Possession

Division One: Property Torts

Chapter 1.       Trespass to Land: Prima Facie Case

Chapter 2.       Trespass to Land: Privileges and Defenses

Chapter 3.       Conversion: Prima Facie Case

Chapter 4.       Conversion: Defenses

Chapter 5.       Trespass to Chattel: Prima Facie Case

Chapter 6.       Trespass to Chattel: Defenses

Chapter 7.       Private Nuisance: Prima Facie Case

Chapter 8.       Private Nuisance: Defenses

Chapter 9.       Private Action for Public Nuisance

Division Two: Mutual Default Rights

Chapter 10.     Customary Rights and Privileges

Chapter 11.     Air and Light

Chapter 12.     Water Rights

Chapter 13.     Lateral Support

Division Three: Remedies

Chapter 14.     Self-Help and Replevin

Chapter 15.     Damages

Chapter 16.     Accounting

Chapter 17.     Injunctive Relief

Chapter 18.     Constructive Trust

Chapter 19.     Resulting Trust

Division Four: Limits on Possessory Rights

Chapter 20.     Owner Duties

Chapter 21.     Custom

Chapter 22.     Public Accommodations

Chapter 23.     Antidiscrimination

Chapter 24.     Public Policy

Chapter 25.     Equitable Limits and Abuse of Right


Division One: Owner Powers

Chapter 1.       Powers in General

Chapter 2.       Power of Alienation

Chapter 3.       Gifts

Chapter 4.       Sales

Chapter 5.       Testation and Succession

Chapter 6.       Power to Create Lesser Interests

Chapter 7.       Domains of power

Chapter 8.       Abandonment

Chapter 9.       Destruction

Chapter 10.     Other Powers

Division Two: Licenses

Chapter 11.     Licenses Defined

Chapter 12.     Durability of Licenses

Chapter 13.     License versus Contract

Chapter 14.     Relation to Possessory Remedies

Division Three: Bailments

Chapter 15.     Bailment Defined

Chapter 16.     Relation to License and Possession

Chapter 17.     Creation

Chapter 18.     Bailment and Contract

Chapter 19.     Involuntary Bailments

Chapter 20.     Liability of Bailee for Lost, Damaged, and Stolen goods

Chapter 21.     Liability of Bailee for Misdelivery


Division One: The Estate System

Chapter 1.       The Forms of Ownership

Chapter 2.       Real versus Personal Property

Chapter 3.       Legal and Equitable Interests

Chapter 4.       Present Interests: Classification

Chapter 5.       Future Interests: Classification

Chapter 6.       Maintaining the Estate System

Chapter 7.       Simplifying the Estate System

Chapter 8.       Waste

Chapter 9.       Restraints on Alienation

Chapter 10.     Legal Recognition of Customary Rights

Chapter 11.     Abuse of Right

Division Two: Co-ownership

Chapter 17.     Co-ownership in General

Chapter 18.     Tenancy in Common

Chapter 19.     Joint Tenancy

Chapter 20.     Tenancy by the Entirety

Chapter 21.     Marital property

Chapter 22.     Tenancy in Partnership

Chapter 23.     Contribution

Chapter 24.     Accounting

Chapter 25.     Severance

Chapter 26.     Partition

Chapter 27.     Relation to Unjust enrichment and equity

Division Three: Landlord and Tenant

Chapter 28.     Types of Leases

Chapter 29.     Term of Years

Chapter 30.     Tenancy at Will

Chapter 31.     Periodic Tenancy

Chapter 32.     Tenancy at Sufferance

Chapter 33.     Dependent and Independent Covenants

Chapter 34.     Transfers of the Landlord Interests

Chapter 35.     Transfers of the Tenant Interests

Chapter 36.     Assignments

Chapter 37.     Subleases

Chapter 38.     Approval Clauses

Chapter 39.     Agricultural, Commercial, and Residential Tenancies

Chapter 40.     Tenant’s Possessory Rights

Chapter 41.     Rent

Chapter 42.     Security Deposit

Chapter 43.     Illegal Leases

Chapter 44.     Quiet Enjoyment

Chapter 45.     Constructive Eviction

Chapter 46.     Implied Warranty of Habitability

Chapter 47.     Termination in General

Chapter 48.     Eviction and its Limits

Chapter 49.     Mitigation of Damages

Chapter 50.     Surrender

Chapter 51.     Forfeiture

Chapter 52.     Abandonment

Chapter 53.     Merger/Extinguishment

Chapter 54.     Regulation of Short-Term Rentals

Chapter 55.     Tenants’ Relationship with Mortgage Lenders

Chapter 56.     Leases of Personal Property

Division Four: Common Interest Communities

Chapter 57.     Defined

Chapter 58.     Condominiums

Chapter 59.     Cooperatives

Chapter 60.     Creation

Chapter 61.     Association Powers

Chapter 62.     Rule Making

Chapter 63.     Rights of Association Members

Chapter 64.     Board Powers

Chapter 65.     Assessments

Chapter 66.     Enforcement

Chapter 67.     Amendments

Division Five: Trusts

Chapter 68.     Legal and Equitable Title

Chapter 69.     Protection against Third parties

Chapter 70.     Good Faith Purchasers

Chapter 71.     Organizational Property


Division One: Transfers

Chapter 1.       Title Defined

Chapter 2.       Nemo Dat Quod Non Habet

Chapter 3.       Good Faith Purchasers

Chapter 4.       Types of Notice

Chapter 5.       Personal Property Transfers in General

Chapter 6.       Real Property Transfers in General

Division Two: Recording

Chapter 7.       Recording and Registration

Chapter 8.       Recording Acts

Chapter 9.       Recording Requirements

Chapter 10.     Types and Sufficiency of Legal Description

Chapter 11.     Indexes

Chapter 12.     Electronic Search

Chapter 13.     Chain of Title

Chapter 14.     Recording Mistakes

Chapter 15.     Recorded Outside the Chain of Title

Chapter 16.     Incorrectly Indexed

Chapter 17.     Ineligibility to be Recorded

Chapter 18.     Marketable Record Title Acts

Chapter 19.     Bona Fide Purchasers

Chapter 20.     Bona Fide Purchasers of Personal Property

Chapter 21.     Shelter Rule

Chapter 22.     Title Disputes

Chapter 23.     Quiet Title Actions

Division Three: Land Transactions

Chapter 24.     Contract and Conveyance

Chapter 25.     Statute of Frauds

Chapter 26.     Part Performance

Chapter 27.     Seller’s Disclosure Obligations

Chapter 28.     Covenant to Convey Marketable Title

Chapter 29.     Risk of Loss

Chapter 30.     Equitable Conversion

Chapter 31.     Estoppel

Chapter 32.     Time of Performance

Chapter 33.     Escrow

Chapter 34.     Delivery and Acceptance

Chapter 35.     Seller’s Remedies

Chapter 36.     Buyer’s Remedies

Chapter 37.     Types of Deeds

Chapter 38.     Deed Requirements (common law and statutory)

Chapter 39.     Land descriptions

Chapter 40.     Implied Warranty

Chapter 41.     Express Warranty

Chapter 42.     Doctrine of Merger

Chapter 43.     Remedies for Breach of Warranties of Title

Division Four: Mortgages

Chapter 44.     Security Interests in General

Chapter 45.     Non-Mortgage Liens

Chapter 46.     Broker’s Liens

Chapter 47.     Remedies of Secured Creditors

Chapter 48.     Mortgages of Real Property

Chapter 49.     Security Interests in Personal Property

Volume 6: Servitudes and Land use

Division One: Easements

Chapter 1.       Defined

Chapter 2.       Contrasted with Licenses, Leases, and Reciprocal Default Rights

Chapter 3.       Appurtenant Easements

Chapter 4.       In Gross Easements

Chapter 5.       Positive Easements

Chapter 6.       Negative Easements

Chapter 7.       Types of Easements

Chapter 8.       Right of Sepulcher

Chapter 9.       Creation of Easements

Chapter 10.     Grant

Chapter 11.     Necessity

Chapter 12.     Implication

Chapter 13.     Prescription

Chapter 14.     Estoppel

Chapter 15.     Private Eminent Domain

Chapter 16.     Misuse of Easements

Chapter 17.     Alteration of Easements

Chapter 18.     Termination of Easements

Chapter 19.     Servitudes on Personal Property

Division Two: Covenants

Chapter 20.     Defined

Chapter 21.     Relation to contract

Chapter 22.     Public policy

Chapter 23.     Restraints on alienation

Chapter 24.     Running

Chapter 25.     Alteration

Chapter 26.     Termination of Covenants

Chapter 27.     Valuation

Chapter 28.     Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions

Division Three: Zoning and Land Use Regulation

Chapter 29.     The Roots of Zoning Law

Chapter 30.     Definitions

Chapter 31.     Regulating Land Use, Structures, and Lots

Chapter 32.     Approvals

Chapter 33.     Roles of Various Groups in Zoning

Chapter 34.     Flexibility Tools

Chapter 35.     Nonconforming Rights

Chapter 36.     Planning

Chapter 37.     Subdivision

Volume 7: PUBLIC RIGHTS and takings

Division One: Public Rights

Chapter 1.       Defined

Chapter 2.       Common and Public Rights

Chapter 3.       Public Nuisance

Chapter 4.       Highways

Chapter 5.       Navigation

Chapter 6.       Public Trust

Chapter 7.       Public Land Grants

Chapter 8.       Dedication

Chapter 9.       Customary Public Rights

Chapter 10.     Escheat, Execution, and Forfeiture

Division Two: Eminent Domain

Chapter 11.     Defined

Chapter 12.     Taxes Distinguished

Chapter 13.     Public use

Chapter 14.     Just Compensation

Chapter 15.     Partial Takings

Chapter 16.     Limiting Legislation

Division Three: Basics of Public Forebearance

Chapter 17.     Defined

Chapter 18.     Role of Regulatory Takings

Chapter 19.     Anti-Retroactivity

Chapter 20.     Vested Rights

Chapter 21.     Due Process


Henry E. Smith

Reporter, The Restatement of the Law Fourth, Property

Henry Smith is the Fessenden Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, where he directs the Project on the Foundations of Private Law. Professor Smith has written primarily on the law and economics of property and intellectual property, with a focus on how property-related institutions lower information costs and constrain strategic behavior.

Maureen E. Brady

Associate Reporter, The Restatement of the Law Fourth, Property

Maureen (Molly) E. Brady is an assistant professor of law at Harvard Law School, where she teaches property law and related subjects. Her scholarship uses historical analyses of property institutions and land use doctrines to explore broader theoretical questions. Her current research projects involve the evolution of nuisance rules, the privatization of public space, and state constitutional takings law.

Sara C. Bronin

Associate Reporter, The Restatement of the Law Fourth, Property

Sara Bronin is the Thomas F. Gallivan Chair in Real Property Law and Faculty Director for the Center for Energy and Environmental Law at UConn School of Law. She is a Mexican-American architect and attorney whose scholarly research, including four books and treatises and over a dozen scholarly articles, examines property, land use, historic preservation, green building, and renewable energy law.

John C. P. Goldberg

Associate Reporter, The Restatement of the Law Fourth, Property

John Goldberg, an expert in tort law, tort theory, and political philosophy, joined the Harvard Law School faculty in 2008. From 1995 until then, he was a faculty member of Vanderbilt Law School, where he served as Associate Dean for Research (2006-08). He is co-author of a leading casebook, Tort Law: Responsibilities and Redress (4th ed. 2016), as well as The Oxford Introductions to U.S. Law: Torts (2010).

Daniel B. Kelly

Associate Reporter, The Restatement of the Law Fourth, Property

Dan Kelly is a professor at Notre Dame Law School. He teaches and writes in the areas of property law, remedies, and wills, trusts, and estates. Professor Kelly’s research focuses on the economic analysis of property law, including the assembly of land for economic development, the sharing and division of property among multiple parties through contracts, leases, and trusts, and the transfer of wealth at death.

Brian A. Lee

Associate Reporter, The Restatement of the Law Fourth, Property

Brian Lee is a professor at Brooklyn Law School. His principal research interests are in property and intellectual property, focusing on the intersection between moral reasoning and economic analysis in the law. At Brooklyn Law School, he is affiliated with the Dennis J. Block Center for the Study of International Business Law.

Tanya D. Marsh

Associate Reporter, The Restatement of the Law Fourth, Property

Tanya Marsh is a professor at Wake Forest Law. She teaches Property, Real Estate Transactions, a Seminar on Law, Business, and the Economy, Funeral and Cemetery Law, and Professional Development. Her scholarship addresses commercial real estate, the regulation of community banks, and the laws regarding the status, treatment, and disposition of human remains.

Thomas W. Merrill

Associate Reporter, The Restatement of the Law Fourth, Property

Thomas Merrill is the Charles Evans Hughes Professor of Law at Columbia Law School. He writes widely in the fields of property and administrative law. Professor Merrill served as the deputy solicitor general for the Department of Justice in the late 1980s. He previously worked for the firm Sidley, Austin, Brown & Wood in Chicago.

Christopher M. Newman

Associate Reporter, The Restatement of the Law Fourth, Property

Christopher Newman is an associate professor Scalia Law. Prior to joining the law school, Professor Newman served an Olin/Searle Fellowship in Law at the UCLA School of Law, where he focused on his research and writing in the areas of property theory and intellectual property. Before that, he was a litigation associate with Irell & Manella LLP in Los Angeles, where he represented clients in disputes involving contracts, business torts, intellectual property, corporate and securities litigation, and appellate matters.

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